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Q1. - (Topic 2)
What are two drawbacks of implementing a link-state routing protocol? (Choose two.)
A. the sequencing and acknowledgment of link-state packets B. the requirement for a hierarchical IP addressing scheme for optimal functionality
C. the high volume of link-state advertisements in a converged network
D. the high demand on router resources to run the link-state routing algorithm
E. the large size of the topology table listing all advertised routes in the converged network
Link State routing protocols, such as OSPF and IS-IS, converge more quickly than their distance vector routing protocols such as RIPv1, RIPv2, EIGRP and so on, through the use of flooding and triggered updates. In link state protocols, changes are flooded immediately and computed in parallel. Triggered updates improve convergence time by requiring routers to send an update message immediately upon learning of a route change. These updates are triggered by some event, such as a new link becoming available oor an existing link failing. The main drawbacks to link state routing protocols are the amount of CPU overhead involved in calculating route changes and memory resources that are required to store neighbor tables, route tables and a complete topology table. http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=24090&seqNum=4
Q2. - (Topic 2)
What are three characteristics of the OSPF routing protocol? (Choose three.)
A. It converges quickly.
B. OSPF is a classful routing protocol.
C. It uses cost to determine the best route.
D. It uses the DUAL algorithm to determine the best route.
E. OSPF routers send the complete routing table to all directly attached routers.
F. OSPF routers discover neighbors before exchanging routing information.
Open Shortest Path First Reference:
Additional OSPF features include equal-cost, multipath routing, and routing based on upper-layer type-of-service (TOS) requests. TOS-based routing supports those upper-layer protocols that can specify particular types of service. An application, for example, might specify that certain data is urgent. If OSPF has high-priority links at its disposal, these can be used to transport the urgent datagram.
OSPF supports one or more metrics. If only one metric is used, it is considered to be arbitrary, and TOS is not supported. If more than one metric is used, TOS is optionally supported through the use of a separate metric (and, therefore, a separate routing table) for each of the eight combinations created by the three IP TOS bits (the delay, throughput, and reliability bits). For example, if the IP TOS bits specify low delay, low throughput, and high reliability, OSPF calculates routes to all destinations based on this TOS designation. IP subnet masks are included with each advertised destination, enabling variable-length subnet masks. With variable-length subnet masks, an IP network can be broken into many subnets of various sizes. This provides network administrators with extra network-configuration flexibility.
Q3. - (Topic 3)
Refer to the exhibit.
Which WAN protocol is being used?
C. Frame Relay
"Show interface pos8/0/0" command showing LMI enq sent which show frame-relay encapsulation enabled on this interface. Cisco supports three different Local Management Interface (LMI) types for Frame Relay: Cisco, ANSI Annex D, and Q933-A Annex A http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=170741&seqNum=3
Q4. - (Topic 2)
What are the two default metrics used by EIGRP for route selection? (Choose two.)
EIGRP adds together weighted values of different network link characteristics in order to calculate a metric for evaluating path selection.
These characteristics include:
. Delay (measured in 10s of microseconds)
. Bandwidth (measured in kilobytes per second)
. Reliability (in numbers ranging from 1 to 255; 255 being the most reliable)
. Load (in numbers ranging from 1 to 255; 255 being saturated)
Various constants (K.1.through K.5) are able to be set by a user to produce varying routing behaviors. However by default, only delay and bandwidth are used in the weighted formula to produce a single 32bit metric:
Note:.Default K values are:.K1.=.K3.= 1 and.K2.=.K4.=.K5.= 0When K5.is equal to 0 then [
K5/(.K4.+ reliability)] is defined to be 1
Use of the default constants effectively reduces the formula above to:
Q5. - (Topic 3)
Refer to the exhibit.
What is the meaning of the term dynamic as displayed in the output of the show frame-relay map command shown?
A. The Serial0/0 interface is passing traffic.
B. The DLCI 100 was dynamically allocated by the router
C. The Serial0/0 interface acquired the IP address of 172.16.3.1 from a DHCP server
D. The DLCI 100 will be dynamically changed as required to adapt to changes in the Frame Relay cloud
E. The mapping between DLCI 100 and the end station IP address 172.16.3.1 was learned through Inverse ARP
The term dynamic indicates that the DLCI number and the remote router IP address
172.16.3.1 are learned via the Inverse ARP process.
Inverse ARP is a technique by which dynamic mappings are constructed in a network, allowing a device such as a router to locate the logical network address and associate it with a permanent virtual circuit (PVC).
Q6. DRAG DROP - (Topic 2)
+ holddown timer: prevents a router from improperly reinstating a route from a regular routing update
+ split horizon: prevents information about a route from being sent in the direction from which the route was learned
+ defining a maximum: prevents invalid updates from looping the internetwork indefinitely
+ route poisoning: causes a routing protocol to advertise an infinite metric for a failed route
+ triggered update: decreases convergence time by immediately sending route information in response to a topology change
Q7. - (Topic 3)
What is the purpose of LCP?
A. to perform authentication
B. to negotiate control options
C. to encapsulate multiple protocols
D. to specify asynchronous versus synchronous
In order to be sufficiently versatile to be portable to a wide variety of environments, PPP provides a Link Control Protocol (LCP). The LCP is used to automatically agree upon the encapsulation format options, handle varying limits on sizes of packets, detect a looped-back link and other common misconfiguration errors, and terminate the link. Other optional facilities provided are authentication of the identity of its peer on the link, and determination when a link is functioning properly and when it is failing.
Reference: Link Control Protocol
Q8. - (Topic 2)
Which type of EIGRP route entry describes a feasible successor?
A. a backup route, stored in the routing table
B. a primary route, stored in the routing table
C. a backup route, stored in the topology table
D. a primary route, stored in the topology table
Feasible Successors A destination entry is moved from the topology table to the routing table when there is a feasible successor. All minimum cost paths to the destination form a set. From this set, the neighbors that have an advertised metric less than the current routing table metric are considered feasible successors. Feasible successors are viewed by a router as neighbors that are downstream with respect to the destination. These neighbors and the associated metrics are placed in the forwarding table. When a neighbor changes the metric it has been advertising or a topology change occurs in the network, the set of feasible successors may have to be re-evaluated. However, this is not categorized as a route recomputation. Feasible successor is a route whose Advertised Distance (AD) is less than the Feasible Distance (FD) of the current best path. A feasible successor is a backup route, which is not stored in the routing table but, stored in the topology table.
Q9. - (Topic 1)
Refer to the exhibit.
The output that is shown is generated at a switch. Which three statements are true? (Choose three.)
A. All ports will be in a state of discarding, learning, or forwarding.
B. Thirty VLANs have been configured on this switch.
C. The bridge priority is lower than the default value for spanning tree.
D. All interfaces that are shown are on shared media.
E. All designated ports are in a forwarding state.
F. This switch must be the root bridge for all VLANs on this switch.
From the output, we see that all ports are in Designated role (forwarding state) -> A and E
The command “show spanning-tree vlan 30 only shows us information about VLAN 30. We
don’t know how many VLAN exists in this switch -> B is not correct.
The bridge priority of this switch is 24606 which is lower than the default value bridge
priority 32768 -> C is correct.
All three interfaces on this switch have the connection type “p2p”, which means Point-to-point environment – not a shared media -> D is not correct.
The only thing we can specify is this switch is the root bridge for VLAN 3o but we can not
guarantee it is also the root bridge for other VLANs -> F is not correct.
Q10. - (Topic 3)
Which protocol is an open standard protocol framework that is commonly used in VPNs, to provide secure end-to-end communications?
Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a technology protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet of a communication session. IPsec also includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiation of cryptographic keys to be used during the session.