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Q11. - (Topic 2) 

Which statements are true about EIGRP successor routes? (Choose two.) 

A. A successor route is used by EIGRP to forward traffic to a destination. 

B. Successor routes are saved in the topology table to be used if the primary route fails. 

C. Successor routes are flagged as 'active' in the routing table. 

D. A successor route may be backed up by a feasible successor route. 

E. Successor routes are stored in the neighbor table following the discovery process. 

Answer: A,D 

Explanation: 

Introduction to EIGRP http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093f07.shtml 

Feasible Successors A destination entry is moved from the topology table to the routing table when there is a feasible successor. All minimum cost paths to the destination form a set. From this set, the neighbors that have an advertised metric less than the current routing table metric are considered feasible successors. 

Feasible successors are viewed by a router as neighbors that are downstream with respect to the destination. 

These neighbors and the associated metrics are placed in the forwarding table. 

When a neighbor changes the metric it has been advertising or a topology change occurs in the network, the set of feasible successors may have to be re-evaluated. However, this is not categorized as a route recomputation. 


Q12. - (Topic 3) 

What is the result of issuing the frame-relay map ip 192.168.1.2 202 broadcast command? 

A. defines the destination IP address that is used in all broadcast packets on DCLI 202 

B. defines the source IP address that is used in all broadcast packets on DCLI 202 

C. defines the DLCI on which packets from the 192.168.1.2 IP address are received 

D. defines the DLCI that is used for all packets that are sent to the 192.168.1.2 IP address 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Frame-relay map ip 192.168.1.2 202 command statically defines a mapping between a network layer address and a DLCI. The broadcast option allows multicast and broadcast packets to flow across the link. The command frame-relay map ip 192.168.1.2 202 broadcast means to mapping the distal IP 192.168.1.2 202 to the local DLCI . When the “broadcast” keyword is included, it turns Frame Relay network as a broadcast network, which can forward broadcasts. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/wan/command/reference/wan_f2.html#wp1012264 


Q13. DRAG DROP - (Topic 3) 

Answer: 

Explanation: 

1) a router is this type of device: DTE2) the most common type of virtual circuit: PVC3) provides status messages between DTE and DCE devices: LMI4) identifies the virtual connection between the DTE and the switch: DLCI 

CCNA Certification Test Prep Case Study http://www.thebryantadvantage.com/CCNACertificationExamTutorialDirectlyConnectedSeri alInterfaces.htm Configuring the LMI Type on a Frame Relay Interface http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=170741&seqNum=3 Frame Relay DLCIs And Mappings http://www.mcmcse.com/cisco/guides/frame_relay_dlci.shtml 


Q14. - (Topic 3) 

Which feature does PPP use to encapsulate multiple protocols? 

A. NCP 

B. LCP 

C. IPCP 

D. IPXP 

Answer:

Explanation: 

PPP permits multiple network layer protocols to operate on the same communication link. For every network layer protocol used, a separate Network Control Protocol (NCP) is provided in order to encapsulate and negotiate options for the multiple network layer protocols. It negotiates network-layer information, e.g. network address or compression options, after the connection has been established 


Q15. - (Topic 3) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Which statement describes DLCI 17? 

A. DLCI 17 describes the ISDN circuit between R2 and R3. 

B. DLCI 17 describes a PVC on R2. It cannot be used on R3 or R1. 

C. DLCI 17 is the Layer 2 address used by R2 to describe a PVC to R3. 

D. DLCI 17 describes the dial-up circuit from R2 and R3 to the service provider. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

DLCI stands for Data Link Connection Identifier. DLCI values are used on Frame Relay interfaces to distinguish between different virtual circuits. DLCIs have local significance because, the identifier references the point between the local router and the local Frame Relay switch to which the DLCI is connected. 


Q16. - (Topic 3) 

What can be done to Frame Relay to resolve split-horizon issues?(Choose two.) 

A. Disable Inverse ARP. 

B. Create a full-mesh topology. 

C. Develop multipoint subinterfaces. 

D. Configure point-to-point subinterfaces. 

E. Remove the broadcast keyword from the frame-relay map command. 

Answer: B,D 

Explanation: 

IP split horizon checking is disabled by default for Frame Relay encapsulation to allow routing updates to go in and out of the same interface. An exception is the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) for which split horizon must be explicitly disabled. Certain protocols such as AppleTalk, transparent bridging, and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) cannot be supported on partially meshed networks because they require split horizon to be enabled (a packet received on an interface cannot be transmitted over the same interface, even if the packet is received and transmitted on different virtual circuits). Configuring Frame Relay subinterfaces ensures that a single physical interface is treated as multiple virtual interfaces. This capability allows you to overcome split horizon rules so packets received on one virtual interface can be forwarded to another virtual interface, even if they are configured on the same physical interface. 


Q17. - (Topic 1) 

Which port state is introduced by Rapid-PVST? 

A. learning 

B. listening 

C. discarding 

D. forwarding 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Spanning Tree from PVST+ to Rapid-PVST Migration Configuration Example Reference 1: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps708/products_configuration_example 09186a00807b0670.shtml 

Reference 2: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094cf a.shtml 

PVST+ is based on IEEE802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). But PVST+ has only 3 port states (discarding, learning and forwarding) while STP has 5 port states (blocking, listening, learning, forwarding and disabled). So discarding is a new port state in PVST+. 

Background Information 

802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) has a drawback of slow convergence. Cisco 

Catalyst switches support three types of STPs, which are PVST+, rapid-PVST+ and MST. 

PVST+ is based on IEEE802.1D standard and includes Cisco proprietary extensions such 

as BackboneFast, UplinkFast, and PortFast. Rapid-PVST+ is based on IEEE 802.1w 

standard and has a faster convergence than 802.1D. RSTP (IEEE 802.1w) natively 

includes most of the Cisco proprietary enhancements to the 802.1D Spanning Tree, such 

as BackboneFast and UplinkFast. Rapid-PVST+ has these unique features: 

Uses Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) version 2 which is backward compatible with the 

802.1D STP, which uses BPDU version 0. 

All the switches generate BPDUs and send out on all the ports every 2 seconds, whereas 

in 802.1D STP only the root bridge sends the configuration BPDUs. 

Port Roles—Root port, designated port, alternate port and backup port. 

Port States—Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding. 

Port Types—Edge Port (PortFast), Point-to-Point and Shared port. 

Rapid-PVST uses RSTP to provide faster convergence. When any RSTP port receives 

legacy 802.1D BPDU, it falls back to legacy STP and the inherent fast convergence 

benefits of 802.1w are lost when it interacts with legacy bridges. 


Q18. - (Topic 3) 

Users have been complaining that their Frame Relay connection to the corporate site is very slow. The network administrator suspects that the link is overloaded. Based on the partial output of the Router # show frame relay pvc command shown in the graphic, which output value indicates to the local router that traffic sent to the corporate site is experiencing congestion? 

A. DLCI=100 

B. last time PVC status changed 00:25:40 

C. in BECN packets 192 

D. in FECN packets 147 

E. in DF packets 0 

Answer:

Explanation: 

First we should grasp the concept of BECN & FECN through an example: 

Suppose Router A wants to send data to Router B through a Frame Relay network. If the network is congested, Switch 1 (a DCE device) will set the FECN bit value of that frame to 1, indicating that frame experienced congestion in the path from source to destination. This frame is forwarded to Switch 2 and to Router B (with the FECN bit = 1). Switch 1 knows that the network is congesting so it also sends frames back to Router A with BECN bit set to 1 to inform that path through the network is congested. 

In general, BECN is used on frames traveling away from the congested area to warn source devices that congestion has occurred on that path while FECN is used to alert receiving devices if the frame experiences congestion. 

BECN also informs the transmitting devices to slow down the traffic a bit until the network returns to normal state. The question asks “which output value indicates to the local router that traffic sent to the corporate site is experiencing congestion” which means it asks about the returned parameter which indicates congestion ->BECN. 


Q19. - (Topic 1) 

Which three of these statements regarding 802.1Q trunking are correct? (Choose three.) 

A. 802.1Q native VLAN frames are untagged by default. 

B. 802.1Q trunking ports can also be secure ports. 

C. 802.1Q trunks can use 10 Mb/s Ethernet interfaces. 

D. 802.1Q trunks require full-duplex, point-to-point connectivity. 

E. 802.1Q trunks should have native VLANs that are the same at both ends. 

Answer: A,C,E 

Explanation: 

CCNA Self-Study (ICND Exam): Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=102157&seqNum=2 


Q20. - (Topic 1) 

What is one benefit of PVST+? 

A. PVST+ supports Layer 3 load balancing without loops. 

B. PVST+ reduces the CPU cycles for all the switches in the network. 

C. PVST+ allows the root switch location to be optimized per VLAN. 

D. PVST+ automatically selects the root bridge location, to provide optimized bandwidth usage. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Per VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) Introduction http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/tk846/tsd_technology_support_sub-protocol_home.html Per VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) maintains a spanning tree instance for each VLAN configured in the network. This means a switch can be the root bridge of a VLAN while another switch can be the root bridge of other VLANs in a common topology. For example, Switch 1 can be the root bridge for Voice data while Switch 2 can be the root bridge for Video data. If designed correctly, it can optimize the network traffic. http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=102157&seqNum=4 

Topic 2, Routing Technologies