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Q61. You work as a security manager for BlueWell Inc. You are going through the NIST SP 800- 37 C&A methodology, which is based on four well defined phases. In which of the following phases of NIST SP 800-37 C&A methodology does the security categorization occur?

A. Security Accreditation

B. Security Certification

C. Continuous Monitoring

D. Initiation

Answer: D

Explanation: The various phases of NIST SP 800-37 C&A are as follows: Phase 1: Initiation- This phase includes preparation, notification and resource identification. It performs the security plan analysis, update, and acceptance. Phase 2: Security Certification- The Security certification phase evaluates the controls and documentation. Phase 3: Security Accreditation- The security accreditation phase examines the residual risk for acceptability, and prepares the final security accreditation package. Phase 4: Continuous Monitoring-This phase monitors the configuration management and control, ongoing security control verification, and status reporting and documentation.


Q62. Which of the following tools is used to attack the Digital Watermarking?

A. Steg-Only Attack

B. Active Attacks

C. 2Mosaic

D. Gifshuffle

Answer: C

Explanation: 2Mosaic is a tool used for watermark breaking. It is an attack against a digital watermarking system. In this type of attack, an image is chopped into small pieces and then placed together. When this image is embedded into a web page, the web browser renders the small pieces into one image. This image looks like a real image with no watermark in it. This attack is successful, as it is impossible to read watermark in very small pieces. Answer: D is incorrect. Gifshuffle is used to hide message or information inside GIF images. It is done by shuffling the colormap. This tool also provides compression and encryption. Answer: B and A are incorrect. Active Attacks and Steg-Only Attacks are used to attack Steganography.


Q63. Mark works as a Network Administrator for NetTech Inc. The company has a Windows 2000 domain-based network. Users report that they are unable to log on to the network. Mark finds that accounts are locked out due to multiple incorrect log on attempts. What is the most likely cause of the account lockouts?

A. Spoofing

B. Brute force attack

C. SYN attack

D. PING attack

Answer: B

Explanation: Brute force attack is the most likely cause of the account lockouts. In a brute force attack, unauthorized users attempt to log on to a network or a computer by using multiple possible user names and passwords. Windows 2000 and other network operating systems have a security feature that locks a user account if the number of failed logon attempts occur within a specified period of time, based on the security policy lockout settings. Answer: A is incorrect. Spoofing is a technique that makes a transmission appear to have come from an authentic source by forging the IP address, email address, caller ID, etc. In IP spoofing, a hacker modifies packet headers by using someone else's IP address to hide his identity. However, spoofing cannot be used while surfing the Internet, chatting on-line, etc. because forging the source IP address causes the responses to be misdirected. Answer: C is incorrect. A SYN attack affects computers running on the TCP/IP protocol. It is a protocol-level attack that can render a computer's network services unavailable. A SYN attack is also known as SYN flooding. Answer: D is incorrect. When a computer repeatedly sends ICMP echo requests to another computer, it is known as a PING attack.


Q64. Stella works as a system engineer for BlueWell Inc. She wants to identify the performance thresholds of each build. Which of the following tests will help Stella to achieve her task?

A. Reliability test

B. Performance test

C. Regression test

D. Functional test

Answer: B

Explanation: The various types of internal tests performed on builds are as follows: Regression tests: It is also known as the verification testing. These tests are developed to confirm that capabilities in earlier builds continue to work correctly in the subsequent builds. Functional test: These tests emphasizes on verifying that the build meets its functional and data requirements and correctly generates each expected display and report. Performance tests: These tests are used to identify the performance thresholds of each build. Reliability tests: These tests are used to identify the reliability thresholds of each build.


Q65. Which of the following methods does the Java Servlet Specification v2.4 define in the HttpServletRequest interface that control programmatic security? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.

A. getCallerIdentity()

B. isUserInRole()

C. getUserPrincipal()

D. getRemoteUser()

Answer: B,C,D

Explanation: The various methods of the HttpServletRequest interface are as follows: getRemoteUser(): It returns the user name that is used for the client authentication. The value of the getRemoteUser() method returns null if no user is authenticated. isUserInRole(): It determines whether the remote user is granted a specified user role. The value of the isUserInRole() method returns true if the remote user is granted the specified user role; otherwise it returns false. getUserPrincipal(): It determines the principle name of the current user and returns the java.security.Principal object. The java.security.Principal object contains the remote user name. The value of the getUserPrincipal() method returns null if no user is authenticated. Answer: A is incorrect. It is not defined in the HttpServletRequest interface. The getCallerIdentity() method is used to obtain the java.security.Identity of the caller.


Q66. Which of the following features of SIEM products is used in analysis for identifying potential problems and reviewing all available data that are associated with the problems?

A. Security knowledge base

B. Graphical user interface

C. Asset information storage and correlation

D. Incident tracking and reporting

Answer: B

Explanation: SIEM product has a graphical user interface (GUI) which is used in analysis for identifying potential problems and reviewing all available data that are associated with the problems. A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface that allows people to interact with programs in more ways than typing commands on computers. The term came into existence because the first interactive user interfaces to computers were not graphical; they were text- and-keyboard oriented and usually consisted of commands a user had to remember and computer responses that were infamously brief. A GUI offers graphical icons, and visual indicators, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation to fully represent the information and actions available to a user. The actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements.


Q67. Which of the following process areas does the SSE-CMM define in the 'Project and Organizational Practices' category? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.

A. Provide Ongoing Skills and Knowledge

B. Verify and Validate Security

C. Manage Project Risk

D. Improve Organization's System Engineering Process

Answer: A,C,D

Explanation: Project and Organizational Practices include the following process areas: PA12: Ensure Quality PA13: Manage Configuration PA14: Manage Project Risk PA15: Monitor and Control Technical Effort PA16: Plan Technical Effort PA17: Define Organization's System Engineering Process PA18: Improve Organization's System Engineering Process PA19: Manage Product Line Evolution PA20: Manage Systems Engineering Support Environment PA21: Provide Ongoing Skills and Knowledge PA22:

Coordinate with Suppliers


Q68. Which of the following security issues does the Bell-La Padula model focus on?

A. Authorization

B. Confidentiality

C. Integrity

D. Authentication

Answer: B

Explanation: The Bell-La Padula model is a state machine model used for enforcing access control in large organizations. It focuses on data confidentiality and access to classified information, in contrast to the Biba Integrity model, which describes rules for the protection of data integrity. In the Bell-La Padula model, the entities in an information system are divided into subjects and objects. The Bell-La Padula model is built on the concept of a state machine with a set of allowable states in a computer network system. The transition from one state to another state is defined by transition functions. The model defines two mandatory access control (MAC) rules and one discretionary access control (DAC) rule with three security properties: 1.The Simple Security Property: A subject at a given security level may not read an object at a higher security level (no read-up). 2.The *- property (star-property): A subject at a given security level must not write to any object at a lower security level (no write-down). The *-property is also known as the Confinement property. 3.The Discretionary Security Property: It uses an access matrix to specify the discretionary access control.


Q69. Microsoft software security expert Michael Howard defines some heuristics for determining code review in "A Process for Performing Security Code Reviews". Which of the following heuristics increase the application's attack surface? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.

A. Code written in C/C++/assembly language

B. Code listening on a globally accessible network interface

C. Code that changes frequently

D. Anonymously accessible code

E. Code that runs by default

F. Code that runs in elevated context

Answer: B,D,E,F

Explanation: Microsoft software security expert Michael Howard defines the following heuristics for determining code review in "A Process for Performing Security Code Reviews": Old code: Newer code provides better understanding of software security and has lesser number of vulnerabilities. Older code must be checked deeply. Code that runs by default: It must have high quality, and must be checked deeply than code that does not execute by default. Code that runs by default increases the application's attack surface. Code that runs in elevated context: It must have higher quality. Code that runs in elevated privileges must be checked deeply and increases the application's attack surface. Anonymously accessible code: It must be checked deeply than code that only authorized users and administrators can access, and it increases the application's attack surface. Code listening on a globally accessible network interface: It must be checked deeply for security vulnerabilities and increases the application's attack surface. Code written in C/C++/assembly language: It is prone to security vulnerabilities, for example, buffer overruns. Code with a history of security vulnerabilities: It includes additional vulnerabilities except concerted efforts that are required for removing them. Code that handles sensitive data: It must be checked deeply to ensure that data is protected from unintentional disclosure. Complex code: It includes undiscovered errors because it is more difficult to analyze complex code manually and programmatically. Code that changes frequently: It has more security vulnerabilities than code that does not change frequently.


Q70. Which of the following is a malicious exploit of a website, whereby unauthorized commands are transmitted from a user trusted by the website?

A. Cross-Site Scripting

B. Injection flaw

C. Side channel attack

D. Cross-Site Request Forgery

Answer: D

Explanation:

CSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery) is a malicious exploit of a website, whereby unauthorized commands are transmitted from a user trusted by the website. It is also known as a one-click attack or session riding. CSRF occurs when a user is tricked by an attacker into activating a request in order to perform some unauthorized action. It increases data loss and malicious code execution. Answer: A is incorrect. Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications which enable malicious attackers to inject client-side script into web pages viewed by other users. An exploited cross-site scripting vulnerability can be used by attackers to bypass access controls, such as the same origin policy. Cross-site scripting carried out on websites were roughly 80% of all security vulnerabilities documented by Symantec as of 2007. Their impact may range from a petty nuisance to a significant security risk, depending on the sensitivity of the data handled by the vulnerable site, and the nature of any security mitigations implemented by the site owner. Answer: C is incorrect. A side channel attack is based on information gained from the physical implementation of a cryptosystem, rather than brute force or theoretical weaknesses in the algorithms (compare cryptanalysis). For example, timing information, power consumption, electromagnetic leaks or even sound can provide an extra source of information which can be exploited to break the system. Many side- channel attacks require considerable technical knowledge of the internal operation of the system on which the cryptography is implemented. Answer: B is incorrect. Injection flaws are the vulnerabilities where a foreign agent illegally uses a sub-system. They are the vulnerability holes that can be used to attack a database of Web applications. It is the most common technique of attacking a database. Injection occurs when user-supplied data is sent to an interpreter as part of a command or query. The attacker's hostile data tricks the interpreter into executing involuntary commands or changing data. Injection flaws include XSS (HTML Injection) and SQL Injection.