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Q81. Which of the following plans is designed to protect critical business processes from natural or man-made failures or disasters and the resultant loss of capital due to the unavailability of normal business processes?
A. Contingency plan
B. Business continuity plan
C. Crisis communication plan
D. Disaster recovery plan
Explanation: The business continuity plan is designed to protect critical business processes from natural or man-made failures or disasters and the resultant loss of capital due to the unavailability of normal business processes. Business Continuity Planning (BCP) is the creation and validation of a practiced logistical plan for how an organization will recover and restore partially or completely interrupted critical (urgent) functions within a predetermined time after a disaster or extended disruption. The logistical plan is called a business continuity plan. Answer: C is incorrect. The crisis communication plan can be broadly defined as the plan for the exchange of information before, during, or after a crisis event. It is considered as a sub-specialty of the public relations profession that is designed to protect and defend an individual, company, or organization facing a public challenge to its reputation. The aim of crisis communication plan is to assist organizations to achieve continuity of critical business processes and information flows under crisis, disaster or event driven circumstances. Answer: A is incorrect. A contingency plan is a plan devised for a specific situation when things could go wrong. Contingency plans are often devised by governments or businesses who want to be prepared for anything that could happen. Contingency plans include specific strategies and actions to deal with specific variances to assumptions resulting in a particular problem, emergency, or state of affairs. They also include a monitoring process and "triggers" for initiating planned actions. They are required to help governments, businesses, or individuals to recover from serious incidents in the minimum time with minimum cost and disruption. Answer: D is incorrect. A disaster recovery plan should contain data, hardware, and software that can be critical for a business. It should also include the plan for sudden loss such as hard disc crash. The business should use backup and data recovery utilities to limit the loss of data.
Q82. The National Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Process (NIACAP) is the minimum standard process for the certification and accreditation of computer and telecommunications systems that handle U.S. national security information. Which of the following participants are required in a NIACAP security assessment? Each correct answer represents a part of the solution. Choose all that apply.
A. Certification agent
B. Designated Approving Authority
C. IS program manager
D. Information Assurance Manager
E. User representative
Explanation: The NIACAP roles are nearly the same as the DITSCAP roles. Four minimum participants (roles) are required to perform a NIACAP security assessment: IS program manager: The IS program manager is the primary authorization advocate. He is responsible for the Information Systems (IS) throughout the life cycle of the system development. Designated Approving Authority (DAA): The Designated Approving Authority (DAA), in the United States Department of Defense, is the official with the authority to formally assume responsibility for operating a system at an acceptable level of risk. Certification agent: The certification agent is also referred to as the certifier. He provides the technical expertise to conduct the certification throughout the system life cycle. User representative: The user representative focuses on system availability, access, integrity, functionality, performance, and confidentiality in a Certification and Accreditation (C&A) process. Answer: D is incorrect. Information Assurance Manager (IAM) is one of the key participants in the DIACAP process.
Q83. A security policy is an overall general statement produced by senior management that dictates what role security plays within the organization. Which of the following are required to be addressed in a well designed policy? Each correct answer represents a part of the solution. Choose all that apply.
A. What is being secured?
B. Where is the vulnerability, threat, or risk?
C. Who is expected to exploit the vulnerability?
D. Who is expected to comply with the policy?
Explanation: A security policy is an overall general statement produced by senior management (or a selected policy board or committee) that dictates what role security plays within the organization. A well designed policy addresses the following: What is being secured? - Typically an asset. Who is expected to comply with the policy? - Typically employees. Where is the vulnerability, threat, or risk? - Typically an issue of integrity or responsibility.
Q84. Which of the following techniques is used to identify attacks originating from a botnet?
A. Passive OS fingerprinting
B. Recipient filtering
D. BPF-based filter
Explanation: Passive OS fingerprinting can identify attacks originating from a botnet. Network Administrators can configure the firewall to take action on a botnet attack by using information obtained from passive OS fingerprinting. Passive OS fingerprinting (POSFP) allows the sensor to determine the operating system used by the hosts. The sensor examines the traffic flow between two hosts and then stores the operating system of those two hosts along with their IP addresses. In order to determine the type of operating system, the sensor analyzes TCP SYN and SYN ACK packets that are traveled on the network. The sensor computes the attack relevance rating to determine the relevancy of victim attack using the target host OS. After it, the sensor modifies the alert's risk rating or filters the alert for the attack. Passive OS fingerprinting is also used to improve the alert output by reporting some information, such as victim OS, relevancy to the victim in the alert, and source of the OS identification. Answer: D is incorrect. A BPF-based filter is used to limit the number of packets seen by tcpdump; this renders the output more usable on networks with a high volume of traffic. Answer: B is incorrect. Recipient filtering is used to block messages on the basis of whom they are sent to. Answer: C is incorrect. IFilters are used to extract contents from files that are crawled. IFilters also remove application-specific formatting before the content of a document is indexed by the search engine.
Q85. Which of the following SDLC phases consists of the given security controls: Misuse Case Modeling Security Design and Architecture Review Threat and Risk Modeling Security Requirements and Test Cases Generation?
B. Requirements Gathering
Explanation: The various security controls in the SDLC design phase are as follows: Misuse Case Modeling: It is important that the inverse of the misuse cases be modeled to understand and address the security aspects of the software. The requirements traceability matrix can be used to track the misuse cases to the functionality of the software. Security Design and Architecture Review: This control can be introduced when the teams are engaged in the "functional" design and architecture review of the software. Threat and Risk Modeling: Threat modeling determines the attack surface of the software by examining its functionality for trust boundaries, data flow, entry points, and exit points. Risk modeling is performed by ranking the threats as they pertain to the users organization's business objectives, compliance and regulatory requirements and security exposures. Security Requirements and Test Cases Generation: All the above three security controls, i.e.,
Misuse Case Modeling, Security Design and Architecture Review, and Threat and Risk Modeling are used to produce the security requirements.
Q86. Which of the following attacks causes software to fail and prevents the intended users from accessing software?
A. Enabling attack
B. Reconnaissance attack
C. Sabotage attack
D. Disclosure attack
Explanation: A sabotage attack is an attack that causes software to fail. It also prevents the intended users from accessing software. A sabotage attack is referred to as a denial of service (DoS) or compromise of availability. Answer: B is incorrect. The reconnaissance attack enables an attacker to collect information about software and operating environment. Answer: D is incorrect. The disclosure attack exposes the revealed data to an attacker. Answer: A is incorrect. The enabling attack delivers an easy path for other attacks.
Q87. You are the project manager of QSL project for your organization. You are working with your project team and several key stakeholders to create a diagram that shows how various elements of a system interrelate and the mechanism of causation within the system. What diagramming technique are you using as a part of the risk identification process?
A. Cause and effect diagrams
B. Influence diagrams
C. Predecessor and successor diagramming
D. System or process flowcharts
Explanation: In this example you are using a system or process flowchart. These can help identify risks within the process flow, such as bottlenecks or redundancy. Answer: A is incorrect. A cause and effect diagram, also known as an Ishikawa or fishbone diagram, can reveal causal factors to the effect to be solved. Answer: B is incorrect. An influence diagram shows causal influences, time ordering of events and relationships among variables and outcomes. Answer: C is incorrect. Predecessor and successor diagramming is not a valid risk identification term.
Q88. Which of the following NIST Special Publication documents provides a guideline on network security testing?
A. NIST SP 800-42
B. NIST SP 800-53A
C. NIST SP 800-60
D. NIST SP 800-53
E. NIST SP 800-37
F. NIST SP 800-59
Explanation: NIST SP 800-42 provides a guideline on network security testing. Answer: E, D, B, F, and C are incorrect. NIST has developed a suite of documents for conducting Certification & Accreditation (C&A). These documents are as follows: NIST Special Publication 800-37: This document is a guide for the security certification and accreditation of Federal Information Systems. NIST Special Publication 800-53: This document provides a guideline for security controls for Federal Information Systems. NIST Special Publication 800-53A. This document consists of techniques and procedures for verifying the effectiveness of security controls in Federal Information System. NIST Special Publication 800-59: This document is a guideline for identifying an information system as a National Security System. NIST Special Publication 800-60: This document is a guide for mapping types of information and information systems to security objectives and risk levels.
Q89. What are the various activities performed in the planning phase of the Software Assurance Acquisition process? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.
A. Develop software requirements.
B. Implement change control procedures.
C. Develop evaluation criteria and evaluation plan.
D. Create acquisition strategy.
Explanation: The various activities performed in the planning phase of the Software Assurance Acquisition process are as follows: Determine software product or service requirements. Identify associated risks. Develop software requirements. Create acquisition strategy. Develop evaluation criteria and evaluation plan. Define development and use of SwA due diligence questionnaires. Answer: B is incorrect. This activity is performed in the monitoring and acceptance phase of the Software Assurance acquisition process.
Q90. An attacker exploits actual code of an application and uses a security hole to carry out an attack before the application vendor knows about the vulnerability. Which of the following types of attack is this?
Explanation: A zero-day attack, also known as zero-hour attack, is a computer threat that tries to exploit computer application vulnerabilities which are unknown to others, undisclosed to the software vendor, or for which no security fix is available. Zero-day exploits (actual code that can use a security hole to carry out an attack) are used or shared by attackers before the software vendor knows about the vulnerability. User awareness training is the most effective technique to mitigate such attacks. Answer: A is incorrect. A replay attack is a type of attack in which attackers capture packets containing passwords or digital signatures whenever packets pass between two hosts on a network. In an attempt to obtain an authenticated connection, the attackers then resend the captured packet to the system. In this type of attack, the attacker does not know the actual password, but can simply replay the captured packet. Answer: C is incorrect. Man-in-the-middle attacks occur when an attacker successfully inserts an intermediary software or program between two communicating hosts. The intermediary software or program allows attackers to listen to and modify the communication packets passing between the two hosts. The software intercepts the communication packets and then sends the information to the receiving host. The receiving host responds to the software, presuming it to be the legitimate client. Answer: D is incorrect. A Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack is mounted with the objective of causing a negative impact on the performance of a computer or network. It is also known as network saturation attack or bandwidth consumption attack. Attackers perform DoS attacks by sending a large number of protocol packets to a network.